Phillips, who was rated by ESPN as the nation's No. 3 overall prospect in the 2017 recruiting class, medically retired in December after two injury-plagued seasons with the Bruins.
He played in just 11 games, starting in six, and finished his UCLA career with 41 tackles, including eight for loss and 4.5 sacks. A concussion ended his 2018 season after four games.
Phillips' 2018 season will count as a redshirt year, per NCAA rules.
Phillips joins a host of recent transfers for the Canes, including a former UCLA teammate in defensive tackle Chigozie Nnoruka, as well as Ohio State quarterback Tate Martell and USC safety Bubba Bolden.