Fuld was promoted to GM on Tuesday, filling the role previously held by Matt Klentak. The team also promoted Jorge Velandia to assistant general manager and Terry Ryan to special assistant to the general manager.
Dave Dombrowski was hired to run baseball operations two weeks ago.
Fuld was a finalist for the managerial position with the Red Sox before they hired Alex Cora.
"The interview process with Boston was an enlightening one," Fuld said. "It [helped] me in appreciating what a manager's role is, especially a modern manager and putting myself in those shoes and understanding how information can be integrated in an easily digestible way for players."
The 39-year-old Fuld joined the Phillies in November 2017 as the major league player information coordinator, working closely with the coaching staff to integrate advanced metrics into the team. He also worked as an outfield instructor.
Fuld was the director of integrative baseball performance last season. He oversaw athletic training, strength and conditioning, and nutrition.
Fuld, an outfielder, played parts of eight seasons from 2007 to '15 with the Chicago Cubs, Tampa Bay Rays, Oakland Athletics and Minnesota Twins. In 2009, he led National League rookies with a .409 on-base percentage and finished fourth with a .299 batting average.
Velandia played professionally for 18 years from 1992 to 2009 before transitioning into the Phillies' front office.
Ryan has spent four years as a special assignment scout for Philadelphia. He previously spent 31 years with the Twins in a variety of positions, including 19 seasons as the club's general manager over two stints.
"The reality, as president of baseball operations, I'll be the one that would make the decisions when it comes to trades," Dombrowski said. "I'll seek the input of everybody else, but ultimately that would be my decision, the final decision, working with everybody. But one thing I do believe in is delegation of responsibilities. People keep you informed on what's taking place."